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Functional Safety

Structural Source Code Coverage – Cost without benefit?

Structural Source Code Coverage: Are you working in software projects where functional safety is becoming more and more important? The use of IEC 61508, ISO 26262 or a comparable standard is around the corner or you are already in the middle of such a project? In these cases you have probably already encountered the term […]

Requirement completeness using data- and control flow analysis

Carrying out a data- and control flow analysis is required in almost all functional safety standards (ISO 26262-6 Table 7 Measures 1f/g, DO 178C Table A-7 Measure 8 and EN 50128, EN 50657Table A19 Measures3/4). In comparison to other measures, the data and control flow analysis causes a lot of questions, when it comes to […]

The non-intrusive measurement of structural coverage!

The measurement of structural source code coverage is nowadays defined as an important procedure in many functional safety standards. The non-intrusive measurement of structural coverage offers completely new possibilities in the future. For a long time, it was industry-wide consensus that structural coverage should and could only be determined in so-called white-box tests. In many […]

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Aerospace – Aviation – DO 178 and Supplements


RTCA DO 331 Model-Based Development and Verification in aerospace

With the enhancement of the RTCA DO 178B to the RTCA DO 178C, four so-called supplements have also been developed. The RTCA DO 331 Model-Based Development is one of these four supplements and describes the requirements for model-based development and verification in aerospace. The following article provides answers to the following questions: How is the […]


Supplements of DO 178C – Where do they come from and what is their content?

With the enhancement of the RTCA DO 178B to the RTCA DO 178C, four so-called supplements have been developed. These supplements of DO 178C define the conditions under which modern software development methods can be used in aerospace. If you look at the history of the RTCA DO 178, you will notice that changes to […]


RTCA DO 178C – Software quality in aerospace!

RTCA DO 178C – The Myth! As early as 1980 there were first considerations in aerospace how to develop software safely and as accurately as possible. These considerations have led to the development of a standard that is widely respected far beyond software. Currently in the version RTCA DO 178C. The standard is used in […]

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Railway – EN 50126 – EN 50128 – EN 50657 – EN 50129

EN 50129 Safety Case

The EN 50129 safety case is the structured and documented safety statement that the conditions for safety acceptance have been fulfilled. The safety case includes all safety-relevant aspects of the product life cycle. When creating the document, the challenge is therefore to present a wide range of information in a clear and comprehensible manner. EN […]

EN 50128 and EN 50657 support tools

Chapter 6.7 of EN 50128 and EN 50657 support tools and languages defines requirements for software tools that are used in a safety-relevant development process. Project team members in safety projects discuss the content and meaning of this chapter again and again. The following article summarizes the essential requirements and derives a practical guide for […]

EN 50128 configurable Systems – The solution?

EN 50128 configurable Systems: Chapter 8 of EN 50128 specifies the requirements for systems that are configured by application data or application algorithms (EN 50128 configurable Systems). This blog summarizes the essential requirements of the standard and the practice-oriented challenges of software-configurable embedded systems. At the first glance the configurability offers only advantages. The functional […]

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Automotive – ISO 26262 – ISO 21448

ISO 26262 Confidence in the use of software tools – A feasible strategy!

ISO 26262 Confidence in the use of softwar tools: ISO 26262-8 in chapter 11 defines the requirements for software tools that are used in an ISO 26262 compliant software development process. In the practical usage of chapter 11 of ISO 26262-8 many questions often arise, which partly lead to very creative approaches regarding tool qualification. […]

ISO 21448 – Safety of the Intended Functionality (SOTIF) Why is it required?

The ISO 21448 Safety of the Intended Functionality defines methods for failure resulting from the limitation of a functionality. ISO 26262 deals with concepts, procedures and measures for failures resulting from random hardware failures or systematic HW/SW failures. Many experts see the SOTIF standard as a normative support for the realization of autonomous driving. This […]

ISO 26262 Safety Case – Success factors: management and traceability!

The term Safety Case is used in the automotive industry and railway industry (EN50129). The following article focuses on the automotive industry. Project experience shows that the achievement of a proven functionally safe system is complex and extensive. This is particularly true if the development of a product is spread over several companies. I will […]

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FuSa Basic Standard – IEC 61508


Functional Safety Basic Standard IEC 61508

The Functional Safety Basic Standard IEC 61508 is often referred to as the mother of all functional safety standards. This standard was introduced in 1998 with the intention of defining cross-industry processes and methods to be used for safety-relevant electrical, electronic and programmable electronic systems. IEC61508 is applied if no industry-specific standards are available for […]


IEC 61508 – Tool qualification – When? Why? How?

The term tool qualification triggers an unpleasant feeling and uncertainty in many people who deal with functional safety. IEC61508 requires the certification of software tools used for software development. Other functional safety standards also require similar measures. Unfortunately, however, the same terms are not always used. IEC61508 uses the term „certified tools“, often the term […]


Specification Architecture Requirement in IEC 61508; Is there any difference?

Specification Architecture Requirement : For an increasing number of systems in the industrial automation functional safety requirements must be fulfilled. The IEC 61508 compliance must be demonstrated for the software development. On the other hand, there are commercial requirements which often severely limit the product development budget. The solution lies in an efficient development process […]

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Other FuSa Standards

ISO 25119: Software Development for Tractors and Machinery for agriculture and forestry

ISO 25119: The norm describes the safety requirements for tractors and machinery for agriculture and forestry. The standard is a sector specific implementation of IEC 61508 and consists of 4 parts. Like other functional safety standards, ISO 25119 specifies various levels of criticality. The standard defines the Agricultural Performance Level (AgPL) QM, a – e. […]

ISO 13849 Safety of machinery – Software development

ISO 13849 Safety of machinery, describes the requirements for the functional safety of machines. The safety standards in the field of machinery are divided into Type A, Type B and Type C standards. ISO 13849 is a Type B standard. For machines that are covered by the scope of a Type C standard and that […]

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Requirements Engineering

Requirement Engineering 2.0 – Approaches how the method needs to be enhanced!

Many books have been written in the last 30 years on the subject of requirement engineering. The method has been designed and improved. The great success of these efforts lies in the fact that the awareness of the topic has been raised in a broad professional audience. There is hardly anyone today who would fundamentally […]

Requirement and Test Traceability – Any added value?

Requirement and Test Traceability: Think about the following situation: You are near the end of your safety-related project and you have established traceability between all the project artifacts. In an audit (e.g. Internal Quality Assurance, Customer, External Authority) you have to demonstrate which software requirements are developed from which System Requirements. Each software requirement is […]

Requirement Engineering Embedded versus IT systems

Requirement Engineering Embedded versus IT: If you analyses the book market, publications or conferences on requirements management and Requirement Engineering, you will find that more than 90% consider requirements engineering from the point of view of IT software systems. There are very few publications that look at the topic from the perspective of embedded systems. […]

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Validation and Verification

Static analysis and dynamic testing: What are the strengths and weaknesses?

Static analysis and dynamic testing: Even after several decades of software engineering, we still far away from guaranteed error-free software. Even for software developed to the highest safety standards, no one can guarantee absolute freedom from errors. All functional safety standards recognize that a guaranteed error-free software (with the current state of the technology) cannot […]

Risk-based testing: Method for identifying the right test cases

There is no such thing as bug-free software! Nevertheless, software is successfully used even in very critical systems. The software development processes have become so mature that it is possible to reduce the number of errors in the software reliably to such an extent that the number of system errors which have their cause in […]

Comparison and evaluation of different test design techniques

Test design techniques: The complexity of technical systems has been increasing for years and there is no foreseeable end to this. The crucial driver of innovation is software. Very powerful hardware in combination with complex software are the basis for trends such as IOT, autonomous driving, Smart Home and human-robot collaboration, to list just a […]

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Config and Quality

Quality Assurance in functional safety projects – Where is the difference?

The quality assurance checks the quality of the product. This is first of all an almost trivial statement. Depending on the definition of the term „product“, however, differentiate the responsibilities clearly. Do we monitor a production process or are we considering the assurance of quality in a software and electronics development? The following blog deals […]

Configuration Management: A challenging task!

Do you know the following situation? A software project is restarted and the individual tasks are distributed within the project team. Sometime if (nearly) all roles are assigned – no one has thought about the configuration management. Often this role is quickly assigned to the project leader, because – so the assumption -there is anyway […]

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Security for Embedded Systems – What lies ahead of us?

The need for security protection measures in the Office IT environment is obvious since years. Firewall, virus scanner, encryption of data: Office IT is no longer thinkable without these aspects. On the other hand, security for embedded systems is relatively new. These systems are already vulnerable to possible malicious attacks. For a long time there […]

Security – A term that has many meanings!

Security is a topic which plays a key role for the success of topics like Internet of Things, Smart Home. If we consider the topic in more detail, it will be realized that it will be worthwhile, to separate the individual topics. It is important to be aware that the boundaries of the separate topics […]

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